Computer Terms Full Forms

General Computer Short Term and related full form terminology as:

Short Term Full Form
ABC Atanasoff-Berry Computer
AMD Advanced Micro Devices
AI Artificial Intelligence
ALU Arithmetic and Logic Unit
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ATM Automated teller machine or Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AVI Audio Visual Interleave
BIOS Basic Input Output System
CD Compact Disk
CU Control Unit
CRT Cathode Ray Tube
CGI Common Gatweay Interface
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CPU Central Processing Unit
CAD Computer Aided Design
CUI Character User Interface
CAI Computer Aided Instruction
CAL Computer Aided Learning
CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection
CVT constant voltage transformer!
DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DIMM Dual In-line Memory Module
DMA Dynamic Memory Access
DPI Dot Per Inch
DVD Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc
EDI Electronic Data Interchange
EDO-RAM extended data output-RAM
FAT File Allocation Table
FLOPS Floating Point Instruction Per Second
FAX Far Away Xerox
FDC Floppy Disk Controller
GIGO Garbage In Garbage Out
GUI Griphical User Interface
GPL General Public Language
HD Hyper Definiation
HDD Hard Disk Drive
HDC Hard Disk Controller
IDE Integrated Development Environment
IRC Internet Relay Chat
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol
ISDN Integrated Service Digital Network
LASER Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
LCD Liquid Crystal Display
LED Light Emitting Diode
MICR Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface
NASSCOM National Association of Software and Services Companies
NFS Network File System
NTFS New Technology File System
OCR Optical Character Recognition
OLE Object Linking and Embedding
OOP Object Oriented Programming
OMR Optical Mark Recognition
PATA Parallel advanced technology attachment
P-COMMERCE Pipe-Commerce
PDF Portable Document Format
PRM Rotate Per Minute
QOS Quality Of Service
RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks or Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks
RAM RAndom Access Memory
ROM Read Only Memory
RJ Registered Jack
RTF Rich Text Format
SATA Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
S-D-RAM Synchronous dynamic random access memory
SIMM single in-line memory module
SMPS Switching-Mode Power Supply
UNIAC UNIVersal Automatic Computer
UPS Un-interruptable Power Supply
USB Universal Serial Bus
UUCP Unix-to-Unix Copy Protocol
VGA Video Graphics Array
VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal
WAIS Wide Area Information System
WAV Waveform Audio
WI-FI Wireless Fidelity
WMF Windows Metafile Format
WORM Write Once Read More
WYSIWYG what you see is what you get
ZIP Zigzag Inline Package or zicxac inline pin


Repeaters are also called Re-generator.

Repeaters is only hardware device.

Repeaters re-generate the original bit pattern.

Repeaters in Computer Network to re-generate to weak signal
Figure: Repeaters in Computer Network

The purpose of repeater is to extend the LAN segment beyond its physical limits.


Open System Interconnection (OSI) Model

Question: What is OSI model? Elaborate your answer.


The OSI stand for "Open System Interconnection".

It was first introduced in the late 1970s by the ISO (International Standard Organization).

An OSI is a set of protocol that allow any two different system to communicate regardless of their underlying architecture.

The OSI model is not a protocol; it is a model for understanding and designing a network architecture that is flexible, robust, and inter-operable.

It consists of seven separate but related layers, each of which defines a part of the process of moving information across network.

These seven layers of OSI model can be divided into two categories:


Q. What is Gateway?


A gateway is hardware & software devices

Gateway is used to interconnect LAN & WAN.

Gateway in Networking
Figure: Gateway in Networking

Gateway makes communication possible between different architecture & environment.

Gateway perform protocol and date onversion.

A gateway operate at the "Transport Layer" and above.


Question: What is routers?


A router is a special purpose computer, that allows to connect to multiple computer networks.

Routers are both hardware & software devices.

Routers in computer networking
Figure: Routers in computer networking

Router can connect network segments, and filters and isolate traffic.


A bridge segment or divide a network to isolate traffic related problem.

A bridge sends the data frames only to the concerned segment.

Bridges are used to connect dis-similar network like ethernet system to Token Ring-System. Thus bridge used to join network using CSMA/CD access and token passing access.

Bridge in Networking
Figure: Bridge in Networking 

Bridge are both hardware and software devices.



Hubs are also called "Multi port repeaters" or "concentrators".

Hub is hardware devices.

Hubs in Computer Networking
Figure: Hubs in computer networking

Hub is similar to repeaters, except that it broadcast data received by any port to tall other parts on the hub.

Random Number Pyramid

Q. Write a C program to print the any entered number, digit pyramid,

For example:

if entered number is : 87954
then output must be as:



/*c program for random digit pyramid*/
int main()
 int n[50],i,j=0,k,r,c,len;
 printf("Enter total length of number : ");
 scanf("%d", &len);
 printf("\nNote: Entered digit MUST be single.\n\n");
 for(i=0; i<len; i++)


Diamond Pattern C program

Q. Write a C program to print the following diamond pattern as:



/*c program for diamond pattern*/
int main()
 int num,r,c,z,n,nm,no;
 printf("Enter max. number : ");
 scanf("%d", &num);
 nm = num+1;
 for(r=1; r<=num; r++,nm--)
  for(c=1,n=num; c<=r; c++,n--)
  for(z=nm,c=1; c<r; c++,z++)

Number Triangle

Q. Write a C program to print the following number triangle/pyramid program:



/*c program for number triangle*/
int main()
 int num,n,r,c,z;
 printf("Enter max. number : ");
 scanf("%d", &num);
 for(r=1; r<=num; r++)
   for(c=1; c<=r; c++)

Number-Character Pattern

Q. Write a C program to print the following number-character pattern as:



/*c program for number-character pattern*/
int main()
 int num=7,r,c,z;
 for(r=1; r<=5; r++)
  for(c=1; c<=num; c++)

Odd Number Pyramid

Q. Write a C program to print the following odd number pyramid as:

3 5
5 7 9
7 9 11 13


/*c program for odd number pyramid*/
int main()
 int num,r,c,z=1,p;
 printf("Enter no. of rows : ");
 scanf("%d", &num);
 for(r=1; r<=num; r++,z=z+2)
  for(c=1,p=z; c<=r; c++,p=p+2)
      printf(" %d",p);